Collin W. Smith

Graduation Year


Date of Thesis Acceptance

Spring 5-13-2015

Major Department or Program

Geology - Environmental Studies


Bob Carson


Very little research has been conducted on the role of ungulates in the development of hummocked topography in wetlands. This survey evaluates 22 hummocked wet meadows and riparian areas on the Dixie, Fishlake and Manti-La Sal National Forests in southern Utah. I explored the variability in location and morphology of hummocked areas in order to better understand the mechanisms of formation at play. The study explores evidence for and against ungulate grazing as factor in hummock formation and/or exacerbation in order to better direct federal land managers’ approach to wetland protection and mitigation. Hummock oblateness may be an important indicator of ungulate interaction with hummocked wetlands. However, the lack of suitable ungrazed reference areas compounds the difficulty of determining ungulate impact. Two locations with exclosures or lighter grazing regimes present different hummock morphology.

Page Count


Subject Headings

Ungulates, Dixie National Forest (Utah), Fishlake National Forest (Utah), Manti-La Sal National Forest (Utah and Colo.), Riparian areas -- United States -- Measurement, Wetlands -- Environmental aspects, Whitman College -- Dissertation collection 2015 -- Geology-Environmental Studies

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Document Type

Public Accessible Thesis

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